Apart from the manufacture of Chemicals, the Company also commenced trading in some mineral products mainly for exports from the year 2009 which has given a substantial boost to the top line figures and a ramp-up in revenues as well as profitability.
Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main provider of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, Boehmite γ-AlO(OH), and diaspore α-AlO(OH), in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2.
About 85% of all the bauxite mined worldwide is used to produce alumina for refining into aluminum metal. Another 10% produces alumina which is used in chemical, abrasive, and refractory products. The remaining 5% of bauxite is used to make abrasives, refractory materials, and aluminum compounds.
The lightness, strength, and corrosion resistance of aluminum are important considerations in its application. Metallic aluminum is used in transportation, packaging such as beverage cans, building construction, electrical applications, and other products.
Aluminum, the third most abundant element at the Earth’s surface, is apparently harmless to plant and animal life.
Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. There are different types of bentonite, each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al).
Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite.
Bentonite Use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations:
Bentonite gels are used as a carrier for a number of cosmetic preparatios, tooth-pastes, creams for skin and other similar products. For the preparation of cosmetic creams, bentonite is generally used as a paste formed with water and glycerine. Bentonite when intimately mixed with water in the proportion of one to four gives a pasty mass with the consistency of a heavy grease and in this form it is used for the preparation of medicinal ointments. Bentonite in the natural state is non-poisonous and harmless; thus it finds use in tooth-paste and even in the preparation of lipstick.
The swelling type of bentonite is finding increasing use in the manufacture of insecticides and paints. The latest use has been its development as a bonding agent in pelletizing iron ore fines in the USA. The taconite agglomeration plant in north-eastern Minnesota consumes a considerable quantity of bentonite.
Bentonite Use as grouting material:
Bentonite has great water binding ability and consequently very low permeability to water. It has been found, that the prmeability of the soil is reduced considerably when substituted by sodium bentonite. Hence, this material is often employed in construction engineering ot make a porous medium water-tight. It can be used alone or with some other grouting material.
Bentonite Use in drilling muds:
Drilling muds consist of water to which sodium bentonite and pulverized barytes are added. Such muds are prepared mainly for deep drilling, like oil-well drilling. Bentonite imparts two properties : It gives the fluid a viscosity several times that of water and thixotrophy; It seals the wall of the holes, thus preventing water loss.
he quantity of bentonite used is variable depending upon the depth of the hole to be drilled. Generally one tonne of bentonite is used to prepare about 100 barrels of mud.
Bentonite Use as decolourizer:
Decolourizing bentonites are those which carry Ca and / or Mg as an exchangeable ion. They are used in the decolourization of animal and vegetable facts (like ground-nut, castor-oil and Vanaspati) and petroleum oil, lubricants, paraffins and other waxes. These are decolourized in two ways: By the percolation method, By the contact method.
Bentonite Use as foundry sands:
Bentonite is utilized in foundry to bind the sand grains into desired shapes. Bentonite helps in retaining the mechanical shape of the mould by making the particles of sands adhere and also making the surface impermeable. Strength and fusion point are the two important properties desired for selecting bentonite. Generally, the swelling type of bentonite is used though other types of bentonites have also been used.
Kaolin is a soft white mineral which has a large array of uses. It is most commonly found in the form of kaolin clay, a fine clay which was originally produced in China, which is why this clay is sometimes referred to as “China clay.” Sources of this mineral can be found all over the world, including the United States, China, Brazil, Australia, and parts of Eastern Europe.
Multiple Properties - Multiple Uses:
Kaolin is part of our natural world, and its uses are multiple and diverse. Because of its whiteness, fine particle size and plate-like structure, kaolin is suitable as a coating, functional filler, extender, ceramic raw material and pigment. It also holds importance as a raw material in refractory applications, catalysts, concrete and fiber glass. Kaolin is a unique industrial mineral that remains chemically inert over a wide pH range and offers excellent coverage when used as a pigment in coated films.
Select the applications below for more information on how kaolin may benefit your company. If you do not see a particular application or industry, this does not mean that kaolin cannot be used in your situation. Please tell us about your application or need by clicking here
Kaolin has been used in papermaking for many years, both as a coating pigment and as a filler to replace fiber. Kaolin is especially suited for paper applications because it possesses desirable optical properties, is generally chemically inert and is also relatively inexpensive when compared to other minerals.
Kaolin is widely used as filler in the plastics industry because of its inert chemical nature and its unique size, shape and structure. In fact, the U.S. plastics and adhesives industries consume up to 125,000 tons of kaolin per year.
Kaolin is used as a carrier and diluent in fertilizers, pesticides and related products. Due to its platy structure, kaolin is very suitable as a carrier because it aids the retention of the formulation on the plant.
Kaolin is commonly used as functional filler in rubber applications. While kaolin improves overall performance for rubber in general, different types of the white pigment play specific roles in rubber applications.
Kaolin has been used in paints for decades and is commonly included in the extender pigments category. Kaolin is used in paint to: 1) reduce the amount of expensive pigments, such as titanium dioxide; 2) assist with desired rheological properties that help maintain proper dispersion; and 3) provide bulk to the product.
Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula 1)CaSO4 2)2H2O. It is found in alabaster, a decorative stone used in Ancient Egypt. It is the second softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale.
Gypsum is used in a wide variety of applications:
an adsorbent clay that will remove coloring from oils.
- Gypsum Board primarily used as a finish for walls and ceilings; known in construction as drywall.
- Plaster ingredient.
- Fertilizer and soil conditioner. In the late 18th and early 19th century, Nova Scotia gypsum, often referred to as plaster, was a highly sought fertilizer for wheat fields in the United States. It is also used in ameliorating sodic soils.
- A binder in fast-dry tennis court clay.
- Plaster of Paris (surgical splints; casting moulds; modeling).
- A wood substitute in the ancient world; for example, when wood became scarce due to deforestation on Bronze Age Crete, gypsum was employed in building construction at locations where wood was previously used.
- A tofu (soy bean curd) coagulant, making it ultimately a major source of dietary calcium, especially in Asian cultures which traditionally use few dairy products.
- Adding hardness to water used for homebrewing.
- A component of Portland cement used to prevent flash setting of concrete.
- Soil/water potential monitoring (soil moisture tension).
- A common ingredient in making mead.
- In the medieval period it was mixed, by scribes and illuminators, with lead carbonate (powdered white lead) to make gesso which was applied to illuminated letters and gilded with gold in illuminated manuscripts.
- In foot creams, shampoos and many other hair products.
- A medicinal agent in traditional Chinese medicine called Shi Gao.
- Impression plasters in dentistry
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red.
In the United States, almost all of the iron ore that is mined is used for making steel. The same is true throughout the world. Raw iron by itself is not as strong and hard as needed for construction and other purposes. So, the raw iron is alloyed with a variety of elements (such as tungsten, manganese, nickel, vanadium, chromium) to strengthen and harden it, making useful steel for construction, automobiles, and other forms of transportation such as trucks, trains and train tracks.
- Refining of Vegetable oils
- Refining of hydrogenated Vanaspati ghee oils, Margarine & shortening
- Refining of Animal Fats like tallow oil, fish oil, lard oil
- Refining of Mineral Oils like
- Insulating oil
- Rolling oil
- Lube oil
- Waste oil
- Industrial triglycerides and fatty acids used for paints, varnishes and soaps
- Paraffins and Waxes
- Decolourising by removing colour pigments like carotenoids, chlorophyll, Pheophytine
- Removal of gums (phospholipids), FFA and soap contents and traces of heavy metals in vegetable oils
- Reducing and Controlling different oil parameters like Peroxide value, Anisidine value, UV-absorption value.FFA contents etc.
- Purification of Aromatic Compounds in case of mineral oils & waxes and removal of Sulphuric acid, Tars acid, Sludge, Sulfonic acid etc.
- Other Applications like
- Bleaching of Sulphur
- In Effluent treatment plants
While the other uses for iron ore and iron are only a very small amount of the consumption, they provide excellent examples of the ingenuity and the multitude of uses that man can create from our natural resources.
used in metallurgy products, magnets, high-frequency cores, auto parts, catalyst.
Radioactive iron (iron 59):
in medicine, tracer element in biochemical and metallurgical research.
in paints, printing inks, plastics, cosmetics (eye shadow), artist colors, laundry blue, paper dyeing, fertilizer ingredient, baked enamel finishes for autos and appliances, industrial finishes.
Black iron oxide:
as pigment, in polishing compounds, metallurgy, medicine, magnetic inks, in ferrites for electronics industry